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CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

Waste is a material discharged and discarded from each stage of daily human life activities, which leads to adverse impacts on human health and the environment (Bringi, 2007). Solid waste refers to the leaves/ twinges, food remnants, paper/cartons, textile materials, bones, ash/dust/stones, dead animals, human and animal excreta, construction and demolishing debris, biomedical debris, household hardware (electrical appliances, furniture, etc) (Sha’Ato et al., 2007; Babatunde et al., 2013). Solid waste is a global environmental problem in today’s world both in less developing and developed countries. Increasing population, rapid economic growth and the rise in community living standards accelerate solid waste generation in the world (Elmira et al., 2010). Solid waste can be classified into different types, depending on their source; household waste is generally classified as municipal waste; industrial waste as hazardous waste, and biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste (US Law-Solid Waste Act 2, 1999). Integrated solid waste management includes the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals (Tchobanoglous and Kreith, 2002). The current waste management techniques include:

  • Source reduction

 

  • Recycling

 

  • Waste transformation

 

  • Landfilling

 

Landfill is currently the most widely used method of waste disposal in Nigeria especially in the state of Osun and is likely to continue to be the main disposal option for the short to medium